A mobile soil analysis system for sustainable agriculture


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{
  "revision": 3, 
  "metadata": {
    "publication_date": "Jun 03, 2022, 16:23:28", 
    "_oai": {
      "id": "oai:materialscloud.org:1370"
    }, 
    "license": "MIT License", 
    "description": "For optimizing production yield while limiting negative environmental impact, sustainable agriculture benefits greatly from real-time, on-the-spot analysis of soil at low cost. Colorimetric paper sensors are ideal candidates for cheap and rapid chemical spot testing. However, their field application requires previously unattained paper sensor reliability and automated readout and analysis by means of integrated mobile communication, artificial intelligence, and cloud computing technologies. Here, we report such a mobile chemical analysis system based on colorimetric paper sensors that operates under tropical field conditions. By mapping topsoil pH in a field with an area of 9 hectares, we have benchmarked the mobile system against precision agriculture standards following a protocol with reference analysis of compound soil samples. As compared with routine lab analysis, our mobile soil analysis system has correctly classified soil pH in 97.8% of cases (132 out of 135 tests) while reducing the analysis turnaround time from days to minutes. Moreover, by performing on-the-spot analyses of individual compound sub-samples in the field, we have achieved a 9-fold increase of spatial resolution that reveals pH-variations not detectable in compound mapping mode. Our mobile system can be extended to perform multi-parameter chemical tests of soil nutrients for applications in environmental monitoring at marginal manufacturing cost.\nThis record comprises a data set of approximately 800 images of a colorimetric paper-based chemical analysis device captured with a custom mobile application at outdoor conditions. The data set also contains three csv files collecting the color information (RGB) values and analysis results (pH values) as determined by the mobile application models from those paper-based device images. These csv files correspond to the RGB data and associated pH values as captured on the field (pre-processed), after processing post field test and a set corresponding to the measurements on a compound sample combining the 9 soil samples collected per hectare. \nAn additional data set is included corresponding to the images and RGB data used for the calibration of the logistic regression models used by the mobile application to predict pH values from the colorimetric information.  \nPython code is made available for the analysis of the colorimetric chemical reaction on paper of chemical reagents to soil samples across a range of acidity values, including the application of an illumination compensation method, and for the training of predictive machine learning models.", 
    "contributors": [
      {
        "familyname": "Ferreira da Silva", 
        "affiliations": [
          "IBM Research - Avenida Rep\u00fablica do Chile, 330, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20031-170, Brazil"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Ademir"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Ohta", 
        "affiliations": [
          "IBM Research - Rua Tutoia 1157, Sao Paulo, SP 04007-900, Brazil"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Ricardo Luis"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Tirapu Azpiroz", 
        "affiliations": [
          "IBM Research - Avenida Rep\u00fablica do Chile, 330, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20031-170, Brazil"
        ], 
        "email": "jaionet@br.ibm.com", 
        "givennames": "Jaione"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Esteves Fereira", 
        "affiliations": [
          "IBM Research - Avenida Rep\u00fablica do Chile, 330, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20031-170, Brazil"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Matheus"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Mar\u00e7al", 
        "affiliations": [
          "IBM Research - Avenida Rep\u00fablica do Chile, 330, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20031-170, Brazil"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Daniel Vitor"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Botelho", 
        "affiliations": [
          "IBM Research - Rua Tutoia 1157, Sao Paulo, SP 04007-900, Brazil"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Andr\u00e9"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Coppola", 
        "affiliations": [
          "IBM Research - Rua Tutoia 1157, Sao Paulo, SP 04007-900, Brazil"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Tulio"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Melo de Oliveira", 
        "affiliations": [
          "IBM Research - Rua Tutoia 1157, Sao Paulo, SP 04007-900, Brazil"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Allysson Flavio"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Bettarello", 
        "affiliations": [
          "ENVERITAS Non-profit Organization, New York, NY, USA"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Murilo"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Schneider", 
        "affiliations": [
          "ENVERITAS Non-profit Organization, New York, NY, USA"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Lauren"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Vila\u00e7a", 
        "affiliations": [
          "CSEM BRASIL - Avenida Jos\u00e9 Candido da Silveira, 2000, Belo Horizonte, MG 31035-536, Brazil"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Rodrigo"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Abdool", 
        "affiliations": [
          "OMNIA FERTILIZERS RSA, Bryanston, Sandton, South Africa"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Noorunisha"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Malanga", 
        "affiliations": [
          "Integrada Agroindustrial Cooperative - R. S\u00e3o Jer\u00f4nimo, 200 - Centro, Londrina, PR 86010-480, Brazil"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Pedro Augusto"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Junior", 
        "affiliations": [
          "Integrada Agroindustrial Cooperative - R. S\u00e3o Jer\u00f4nimo, 200 - Centro, Londrina, PR 86010-480, Brazil"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Vanderlei"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Furlaneti", 
        "affiliations": [
          "Integrada Agroindustrial Cooperative - R. S\u00e3o Jer\u00f4nimo, 200 - Centro, Londrina, PR 86010-480, Brazil"
        ], 
        "givennames": "Wellington"
      }, 
      {
        "familyname": "Steiner", 
        "affiliations": [
          "IBM Research - Avenida Rep\u00fablica do Chile, 330, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20031-170, Brazil"
        ], 
        "email": "mathiast@br.ibm.com", 
        "givennames": "Mathias"
      }
    ], 
    "edited_by": 576, 
    "title": "A mobile soil analysis system for sustainable agriculture", 
    "conceptrecid": "1330", 
    "license_addendum": null, 
    "doi": "10.24435/materialscloud:hr-kn", 
    "mcid": "2022.70", 
    "_files": [
      {
        "size": 308412582, 
        "key": "All Original Figures.zip", 
        "checksum": "md5:312582fb9b9c5bcf8353ce0c9dea10d5", 
        "description": "Data set of images of colorimetric paper-based chemical analysis device captured with a custom mobile application."
      }, 
      {
        "size": 128613, 
        "key": "FieldTestAllData_external_byID_preProcessed.csv", 
        "checksum": "md5:1f3eccb410e0552142d5cf5aa8a5141e", 
        "description": "csv file collecting the color information (RGB) values and analysis results (pH values) as determined by the mobile application models. All data."
      }, 
      {
        "size": 129541, 
        "key": "FieldTestAllData_external_byID_postProcessed.csv", 
        "checksum": "md5:47aede01f60142e5f0f584f664396ad0", 
        "description": "csv file collecting the color information (RGB) values and analysis results (pH values) as determined by the mobile application models. After processing"
      }, 
      {
        "size": 8778, 
        "key": "FieldTestAllData_external_byID_CompoundSamples.csv", 
        "checksum": "md5:3b8178529683a65e3c4ab93e9524dafb", 
        "description": "csv file collecting the color information (RGB) values and analysis results (pH values) as determined by the mobile application models. Compound samples per hectare."
      }, 
      {
        "size": 43410, 
        "key": "CalibrationData.zip", 
        "checksum": "md5:67c2db727d5f1c7670577506b9553d1d", 
        "description": "csv files with the RGB values corresponding to colorimetric paper-based chemical analysis devices used for the calibration of the logistic regression models used by the mobile application to predict pH values from the colorimetric information."
      }, 
      {
        "size": 3003744346, 
        "key": "CalibrationImages.zip", 
        "checksum": "md5:6bc2162cd9fe0134e70587f0dcec4d69", 
        "description": "Dataset of images corresponding to colorimetric paper-based chemical analysis devices used for the calibration of the logistic regression models used by the mobile application to predict pH values from the colorimetric information."
      }
    ], 
    "id": "1370", 
    "keywords": [
      "colorimetric sensor", 
      "paper-based device", 
      "soil testing", 
      "acidity", 
      "field test", 
      "mobile application", 
      "Experimental"
    ], 
    "is_last": false, 
    "status": "published", 
    "references": [
      {
        "comment": "\"Paper in which the data collection and analysis method is described\"", 
        "type": "Journal reference", 
        "citation": "\"A mobile soil analysis system for sustainable agriculture\" Ademir Ferreira da Silva el al. (2022) In Preparation."
      }, 
      {
        "comment": "Python code repository comprising a set of Jupyter Notebooks for the analysis and model training with colorimetric data extracted from chemical reactions on paper-based sensing devices, including the application of an illumination compensation method.", 
        "url": "https://github.com/IBM/paper-device-colorimetric-analysis", 
        "type": "Software", 
        "citation": "M. Esteves Ferreira, J. Tirapu Azpiroz, [Source code] (2022)."
      }
    ], 
    "version": 2, 
    "owner": 744
  }, 
  "id": "1370", 
  "created": "2022-06-02T03:43:06.091605+00:00", 
  "updated": "2022-06-28T17:08:07.632319+00:00"
}