Publication date: Jan 20, 2020
The role of the divalent nature of tin is explored in tin monoxide, revealing a novel path for enhancing p-type conductivity. The consequences of oxygen off-stoichiometry indicate that a defect complex formed by a tin vacancy (VSn) and an impurity interstitial (Di) leads to an increased number of free carriers as well as improved acceptor state stability when compared with the isolated VSn. In this study, we identify several elements that are able to stabilize such a defect complex configuration. The enhanced ionization of the resulting complex arises from the divalent nature of Sn, which allows Sn(II) and Sn(IV) oxidation states to form. Such a novel doping mechanism not only offers a path for creating a high-performance p-type transparent SnO, but reveals an as-of-yet unexplored route to improve conductivity in other compounds formed by multivalent elements, for example, Sn(II)-based thermoelectrics.
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|16.0 KiB||You will find the crystalline structure used for simulating the defect interaction between the tetrahedral site and the impurity. The structure (a supercell) was optimised at the hybrid level using PBE0.|