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Achieving 19% efficiency in nonfused ring electron acceptor solar cells via solubility hysteresis sequential condensation strategy

Rui Zeng1, Ming Zhang1, Xiaodong Wang2, Lei Zhu1*, Bonan Hao1, Wenkai Zhong1, Guanqing Zhou1, Jiaxing Zhuang1, Anyang Zhang1, Fei Han1, Zichun Zhou1, Xiaonan Xue3, Shengjie Xu1, Jinqiu Xu1, Yahui Liu2, Hao Lu2, Xuefei Wu3, Cheng Wang4, Zachary Fink4,5, Thomas P. Russell4,5, Hao Jing3, Yongming Zhang1,6, Zhishan Bo2,7*, Feng Liu1,6*

1 School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, In-situ Center for Physical Science, and Center of Hydrogen Science Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

2 College of Textiles & Clothing, State Key Laboratory of Bio-fibers and Eco-textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China.

3 Shanghai OPV Solar New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201210, China.

4 Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

5 Polymer Science and Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA01003, USA.

6 State Key Laboratory of Fluorinated Functional Membrane Materials and Dongyue Future Hydrogen Energy Materials Company, Zibo City, Shandong 256401, China.

7 Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

* Corresponding authors emails:,,
DOI10.24435/materialscloud:nt-y8 [version v1]

Publication date: Aug 31, 2023

How to cite this record

Rui Zeng, Ming Zhang, Xiaodong Wang, Lei Zhu, Bonan Hao, Wenkai Zhong, Guanqing Zhou, Jiaxing Zhuang, Anyang Zhang, Fei Han, Zichun Zhou, Xiaonan Xue, Shengjie Xu, Jinqiu Xu, Yahui Liu, Hao Lu, Xuefei Wu, Cheng Wang, Zachary Fink, Thomas P. Russell, Hao Jing, Yongming Zhang, Zhishan Bo, Feng Liu, Achieving 19% efficiency in nonfused ring electron acceptor solar cells via solubility hysteresis sequential condensation strategy, Materials Cloud Archive 2023.135 (2023),


Nonfused ring electron acceptors (NFREAs) are interesting n-type near infrared (NIR) photoactive semiconductors with strong molecular absorption and easy synthetic route. However, the low backbone planarity and bulky substitution make NFREA less crystalline, which significantly retards charge transport and the formation of bicontinuous morphology in organic photovoltaic device. Donor and acceptor solubility in different solvents is studied, and the created solubility hysteresis can induce the formation of the highly crystalline donor polymer fibril to purify the NFREA phase, thus a better bicontinuous morphology with improved crystallinity. Based on these results, a general solubility hysteresis sequential condensation (SHSC) thin film fabrication methodology is established to produce highly uniform and smooth photoactive layer. The well-defined interpenetrating network morphology afforded a record efficiency of 19.02%, which is ~22% improvement comparing to conventional device fabrication. A high efficiency retention (Pr) value of 92.3% is achieved in 1 cm² device (17.28% efficiency).

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File name Size Description
12.8 KiB Specific performance parameters in different preparation conditions based on organic solar cells in this paper.
19.4 KiB The device optimization for OXY content in CF&OXY mixed solution under AM 1.5G, 100 mA cm².
17.7 KiB The device optimization for solid additive DIB content under AM 1.5G, 100 mA cm².
16.4 KiB The efficiency for CF, OXY, CF&OXY based devices in area of 5.2 mm^2 and 100 mm^2 under AM 1.5G, 100 mA cm².


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External references

Preprint (Paper in which the method is described)
Rui Zeng. et al. Achieving 19% efficiency in nonfused ring electron acceptor solar cells via solubility hysteresis sequential condensation strategy. (in preparation)


organic solar cells nonfused ring electron acceptor record efficiency large-area device experimental

Version history:

2024.67 (version v2) Apr 29, 2024 DOI10.24435/materialscloud:w6-kf
2023.135 (version v1) [This version] Aug 31, 2023 DOI10.24435/materialscloud:nt-y8